Hypothesis versus Theory versus Fact

This motivates the shift to views that narrow the class ofuniverses in the multiverse by employing a strong logic. For example,one can restrict to universes that are ω-models, β-models(i.e., wellfounded), etc. On the view where one takes ω-models,the statement Con(ZFC) is classified as true (though this is sensitiveto the background theory) but the statement PM (all projective setsare Lebesgue measurable) is classified as indeterminate.

Does your hypothesis have to be true?

My health improves during the times when I drink green tea only, as opposed to root beer only.

The date for the writing of the Pentateuch is a case in point.

In the Fall of 1963 Easton completed the picture by showing thatfor infinite regular cardinals κ the only constraintson the function κ ↦ 2κ that are provable inZFC are the trivial constraint and the results of Cantor andKönig:

In order for a hypothesis to be sound, hold tight to these tips:

He did this by inventing the method of outer models andshowing that CH failed in a generic extension of . The combinedresults of Gödel and Cohen thus demonstrate that assuming theconsistency of ZFC, it is in principle impossible to settle either CHor GCH in ZFC.

A statistical hypothesis is an examination of a portion of a population.

Hypotheses cannot become theories and theories cannot become laws.

Earth Science The attempts to explainthe natural occurrences () of the universe by usinga logical, consistent, systematic method of investigation, information() collection, data analysis (),testing (), and refinement to arrive at a well-tested,well-documented, explanation that is well-supported by evidence, calleda . The process of establishing anew scientific theory is necessarily a grueling one; new theories mustsurvive an adverse gauntlet of skeptics who are experts in their particulararea of science; the original theory may then need to be revised to satisfythose objections. The typical way in which new scientific ideas aredebated are through refereed scientific journals, such as Nature and ScientificAmerican. (Depending upon the area of science, there are many otherjournals specific to their respective fields that act as referees.) Before a new theory can be officially proposed to the scientific community,it must be well-written, documented and submitted to an appropriate scientificjournal for publication. If the editors of these prestigious publicationsaccept a research article for publication, they are signaling that theproposed theory has enough merit to be seriously debated and scrutinizedclosely by experts in that particular field of science. Skepticsor proponents of alternative or opposing theories may then try to submittheir research and data, while the original proponents of the proposedtheory may publish new data that answers the skeptics. It may takemany years of often acrimonious debate to settle an issue, resulting inthe adoption, modification, or rejection of a new theory. For example,the Alvarez Meteorite Impact theory (a 6-mile wide meteorite struck theearth 65 million years ago, ending the Cretaceous Period and causing extinctionof the dinosaurs), was first proposed in 1979, and took about 10 yearsof debate before winning over the majority of earth scientists.

Theories apply to a broader range of phenomena than do hypotheses.

This is where the alternative hypothesis (H1) enters the scene. In an attempt to disprove a null hypothesis, researchers will seek to discover an alternative hypothesis.

Make sure your hypothesis is testable with research and experimentation.

Was the Book of Isaiah was written by multiple Isaiahs?

If the quality control specialist sets his significance level α at 0.05 and used the critical value approach to conduct his hypothesis test, he would reject the null hypothesis if his test statistic t* were less than -2.2622 or greater than 2.2622 (determined using statistical software or a t-table):

It must be tested on independent evidence; discarded hypotheses are signs of growth and advance.

In fact, theories often integrate and generalize many hypotheses.

Further Reading: For more on the connection betweenΩ-logic and the generic multiverse and the above criticism ofthe generic multiverse see Woodin (2011a). For the bearing of recentresults in inner model theory on the status of the Ω Conjecturesee Woodin (2010).

The hypothesis was formulated by Judith McKellar, American archaeologist.

Hypotheses are reasoned and informed explanations.

A null hypothesis (H0) exists when a researcher believes there is no relationship between the two variables, or there is a lack of information to state a scientific hypothesis. This is something to attempt to disprove or discredit.