Carbon fixation stage in photosynthesis

-respiration, in which pyruvate is combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water, which creates a lot of ATP per unit of pyruvate (16 I think). Obviously, glycolysis has to happen first, in order to make the pyruvate. This happens in the mitochondrion, which likewise exists in both animals and plants.

Photosynthesis is divided into two parts:

All the major biological molecules in plants are derived from the photosynthetic process:

Photosynthesis, respiration and ATP/ADP are related.

Photosynthetic organisms use energy from sunlight to synthesize their own fuels. They can convert harvested sunlight into chemical energy (including ATP) to then drive the synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. When they synthesize the carbohydrates, oxygen gets released. Globally, more than 10 billion tons of carbon is "fixed" by plants every year - this means that carbon molecules are converted from being part of a simple gas (carbon dioxide) into more complex, reduced molecules (carbohydrates), making carbon available as food for non-photosynthesizers (and of course, providing oxygen). They use some of the carbohydrate for their own growth and reproduction. It is pretty remarkable when you think about it - have you been to Sequoia National Park or seen the redwoods along our northwest coast? Massive trees, right? Think about the fact that most of that mass is in the form of carbon that was pulled out of the air as carbon dioxide!

We could also look at the effect of pH on ATP production.

The process of photosynthesis is two-part. First, there are the light reactions, where light is converted into chemical energy (a reduced electron carrier and ATP). This occurs in the thylakoids (stacked membranes) of the chloroplasts. The ATP and electron carriers are then used in a second set of reactions, called the light-independent reactions. This also occurs in the chloroplasts, but in an area called the stroma. In this case, carbon dioxide gets used to produce sugars in a series of reactions called the Calvin Cycle, C4 photosynthesis, and crassulacean acid metabolism. You can look in any basic bio textbook to see how much "energy" or "sugar" is produced in each step of the process.


Photosynthesis | Microbiology - Lumen Learning

Light reactions need light to produce organic energy molecules (ATP and NADPH). They are initiated by colored pigments, mainly green colored chlorophylls.

ATP production during photosynthesis is called therefore

To a plant, sunbathing is life. Literally. In fact, plants have evolved all sorts of ways to maximize their exposure to the sun while at the same time preventing loss of critically needed water. Plants, as well as some algae and bacteria, perform photosynthesis, a process that involves the capture and use of the Sun’s energy to create biological compounds. Photosynthetic organisms generate these compounds using carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), and the products they release are oxygen (O2) and carbohydrates as byproducts.

the ATP needed for photosynthesis is produced in the mitochondria

A lot of my college students still have trouble with this one. The reactions that happen in respiration and photosynthesis are different, but if we just look at what goes in and what comes out, they're opposites.

Here's photosynthesis:
Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Water (H20) in, Oxygen and Sugar out.
Requires energy from the sun.

Here's cellular respiration:
Oxygen and Sugar in, CO2 and H20 out. Releases energy from the sugar.

Plants can do both. When they have light, they use it as an energy source to put the pieces of CO2 and H2O to make sugar. They can put a bunch of sugars together to make starch (what foods are starchy?), cellulose (the stringy stuff you can't chew up), and wood.

When it's dark, they can do cellular respiration to break down the starch and sugar to release the energy they need.

Poor animals, we can only do cellular respiration. We need foods like starch, and oxygen, and we breathe out the CO2 that's made. We don't get enough water from the process to take care of all of our needs so we have to drink more. Kangaroo rats don't have to drink water. They conserve water a lot better than we do.

Can plants live without animals? Can animals live without plants?
Thanks for asking.

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Plants and photosynthetic organisms utilize this solar energy in fixing large amounts of CO2 (2x1011 t = 3x1021 J/year), while amounts consumed by human beings are relatively small, (3 x 1020 J/year) (1), representing only 10% of the energy converted during photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis in plants occurs in two stages

It is a result of an enzyme controlled sequence of reactions requiring ATP and hydrogen (NADPH2) from the light stage, and carbon dioxide. It involves the reduction of carbon dioxide, that is the addition of hydrogen, to form carbohydrate.