# Exploratory, Descriptive, and Causal Research Design

Hypothesis Testing
Statistical tests to determine whether a hypothesis is accepted or rejected. In hypothesis testing, two hypotheses are used: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis is the hypothesis of interest; it generally states that there is a relationship between two variables. The null hypothesis states the opposite, that there is no relationship between two variables.

## Example of a complex multiple independent variable hypothesis:

### Example of a complex multiple dependent variable hypothesis:

Instrument Error
A type of non-sampling error caused by the survey instrument (or questionnaire) itself, such as unclear wording, asking respondents for information they are unable to supply or the instrument being changed in some way during the course of the research.

### Types of Research Hypotheses | Synonym

I review two qualitative research articles and two political theory articles to examine this causal relationship and then I include a discussion of the articles' methods.

## the structure of a causal hypothesis is ..

Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM)
A multi-level modeling procedure that works well for nested circumstances (e.g., estimating the effects of children nested within classrooms nested within schools). HLM enables a researcher to estimate effects within individual units, formulate hypotheses about cross level effects and partition the variance and covariance components among levels.

## What is the difference between inference and hypothesis?

Independence
The lack of a relationship between two or more variables. For example, annual snow fall and the Yankee's season record are independent, but annual snow fall and coat sales are not independent.

## What is the difference between inference and hypothesis

Grounded Theory
The development of social science theory from the inductive analysis of data. This approach is generally used in qualitative research. The specific and detailed observations in the data are studied and understood to such an extent that a theory of more general patterns of behavior can be generated.

### see the entries on the Language of Thought Hypothesis and ..

Interaction Effect
A situation where the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable varies depending on the value of another, additional variable. For example, teaching style and student's gender would have an interactive effect if boys learned more in a lecture style classroom, while girls learned more in a discussion style classroom. In other words, the effect of teaching style on learning varies depending on student's gender.

### the concept of causality for testing hypothesis

Independent Variable
The variables that the researcher expects to be the cause of an outcome of interest. For example, if a researcher wants to examine the effect of gender on income, gender is the independent variable. Sometimes this variable is referred to as the treatment variable or the causal variable.

### Descriptive, and Causal Research Design ..

Internal Validity
The extent to which researchers provide compelling evidence that the causal (independent) variable causes changes in the outcome (dependent) variable. To do this, researchers must rule other potential explanations for the changes in the outcome variable.