Chemical Journal of Chinese Universities, 2016, 37(9): 1605-1610.

covers the following areas: Chemical Synthesis (Syntheses of biologically important macromolecules including proteins, polypeptides, oligonucleotides, oligosaccharides etc.; Asymmetric synthesis; Combinatorial synthesis; Diversity-oriented synthesis; Template-directed synthesis; Biomimetic synthesis; Solid phase biomolecular synthesis; Synthesis of small biomolecules: amino acids, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleosides; and Natural product synthesis).

Syringe method for stepwise chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides.

Szostak JW.  Journal of Systems Chemistry 2012,3:2. .

Zhu TF, Szostak JW. Journal of Systems Chemistry 2011, 2:4. .

The label on the oligo tube shows basic information like oligo name, name of person who ordered, oligo sequence including modifications, oligo ID, amount of DNA (OD260 and nmol), Tm, and molecular weight.
In addition, you will receive a synthesis report containing more detailed information on the physical-chemical properties of the oligo, such as base composition, base count, purification grade, amount of DNA (OD260 and nmol), Tm and molecular weight. If you have ordered purification or your ordered oligo is purified by default (e.g. Dual labeled oligos, dual modified oligos, mid- and large scale oligos), you will also get a printout of the preparative chromatogram.

and seminars on solid-phase chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides.

The real answer lies in the resolution limit of the purification method and on the coupling efficiency of the DNA synthesizer. We can synthesize DNA oligos of 220 bases and obtain sufficient quantities by purification to perform successful gene construction. However, it should be remembered that the longer the oligo, the greater the chance of accumulated sequence errors.


(2005) Chemical Synthesis of Oligonucleotides…

Oligonucleotide synthesis is carried out by a stepwise additionof nucleotide residues to the 5'-terminus of the growing chainuntil the desired sequence is assembled. Each addition is referredto as a synthetic cycle (Scheme 6) and consists of four chemicalreactions:

Chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides. 3: Synthesis …

Coupling efficiency is a way of measuring how efficiently the DNA synthesizer is adding new bases to the growing DNA chain. If every available base on the DNA chain reacted successfully with the new base, the coupling efficiency would be 100%. Few chemical reactions are 100% efficient. The industry standard for coupling efficiency during DNA synthesis is around 98,5%, with maximum coupling efficiency obtainable being around 99%. This means that at every coupling step approximately at least 1% of the available bases fail to react with the new base being added. Coupling efficiency is significantly influenced by the quality of raw material (amidites and solutions), instruments and synthesis protocols used.

Chemical Synthesis of Oligonucleotides - PDF documents

The table also shows that the longer an oligo, the lower the yield of full length product that can be expected, due to limitations set by chemistry. Assuming a coupling efficiency of 99% for every single base addition (industry standard is 98.5 % in average), the raw product of a 95-mer synthesis would consist of only 38.5 % full length oligonucleotide. Separating full length and failure sequences from each other by purification results in additional loss, so that low yields are a normal matter of fact.

Characterization of Byproducts from Chemical …

One may visualize an oligonucleotide microarray as a miniaturemulti-well plate where physical dividers between the wells (plasticwalls) are intentionally removed. With respect to the chemistry,synthesis of oligonucleotide microarrays is different from theconventional oligonucleotide synthesis in two respects:

the chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides would ..

In the past, oligonucleotide synthesis was carried out manuallyusing, as containers for the solid phase, miniature glass columnssimilar in their shape to low-pressure chromatography columns orsyringes equipped with porous filters.Currently, solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis is carried outautomatically using computer-controlled instruments(oligonucleotide synthesizers) and is technically implemented incolumn, multi-well plate, and array formats. The column format isbest suited for research and large scale applications where ahigh-throughput is not required. Multi-well plate format isdesigned specifically for high-throughput synthesis on small scaleto satisfy the growing demand of industry and academia forsynthetic oligonucleotides. A number of oligonucleotidesynthesizers are available commercially.