In the present paper, I focus on moral issues of chemical synthesis.

The step from undergraduate to postgraduate seemed daunting! However, this course has allowed me to grow with such comfort and never have I enjoyed studying an actual concept as much as I have this year. To have gained an incredible insight into the biology of cancer and elements of chemistry, alongside the manual lab skills I have developed, is just invaluable.

Thus, the intentionargument of our synthetic chemist is incomplete.

IT is now a powerful too in the development of chemistry.

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While the inventionand use of chemical weapons might be in the interest of a nation, and whileit might be argued from an utililarian point of view that the of weapons can sometimes be in the interest of humanity, the of new chemical weapons, like the synthesis of any substance with the intentionto harm or kill people, is definitely against the interest of humanity.

Aspirin - Molecule of the Month - School of Chemistry | …

Therefore, utilitarianism does not undermine butstrongly support the categorical moral claim that every synthesis of anew substance with the intention to harm or kill people is morally wrong.

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Rational drug design is a very different approach than the trial and error that led to the first use of aspirin. To design drugs that target a specific enzyme or biochemical mechanism is increasingly feasible since the 1980s, when scientific knowledge about relevant mechanisms began to accumulate. Molecular biologists had deciphered the molecular sequences of the COX enzymes and how they fold into complex three-dimensional structures. Armed with this knowledge, pharmacologists set about finding small drug molecules that interfere with only COX2 and not COX1.

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Both Celebrex and Vioxx made the 2001 list of top ten drugs by global sales, beating the famous impotence drug Viagra, introduced in 1998. Clinical superiority is not the only reason for the high dollar sales of COX2 inhibitors. Another reason is that super aspirins are much more expensive than aspirin. Social critics grumble that the new drugs are not worth their high prices, but people whose drug bills are covered by health insurance do not care. They demand the best, whether or not aspirin upsets their stomachs; they pay the same insurance premium anyway. COX2 inhibitors grossed $5.7 billions and accounted for 23 percent of the pain and inflammation drug market in 2001. That was smaller than the 30 percent for the old COX inhibitors, but the trend of replacement was unmistakable. Optimistic analysts projected that by 2010, the market share of COX2 inhibitors would more than double that of COX inhibitors.

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At least that is what national politicians, from the Manhattan projectto the Cold War era, said and continue to say since weapons research, includingchemical weapons research,[] makes up a large if notthe largest part of national research budgets of many countries. The problem of the argument is that it confuses two different kindsof actions: scientific research of a new weapon and the military deploymentof any weapon.

I decided to do my project on the chemistry of ibuprofen

Blood clotting is a complex process. The blood contains, besides red and white blood cells, partial cells called platelets. The disc-like platelets are produced in the bone marrow and cannot reproduce themselves because they contain no nucleus. They usually lie dormant in the blood, awakened only by chemicals released by injured tissues or a tear in the artery’s plaque. These stimulants activate the COX1 enzyme in the platelets to produce a prostaglandin, which causes the platelets to stick together, triggering the cascade of reactions that result in clotting of blood. By inhibiting COX1 from synthesizing the prostaglandin, aspirin reduces the stickiness of platelets, hence the chance of forming blood clots. For this antiplatelet purpose aspirin is uniquely effective. All other aspirin-like drugs inhibit COX temporarily, aspirin alone inhibits it permanently. One dose of aspirin has antiplatelet effects that last through the platelet’s lifetime, about ten days.

is an important aspect in the industry of organic chemistry

Therefore, since it is justified to holdchemists, as anybody else, responsible to humanity, every chemist involvedin such projects as chemical weapons research violates norms of generalmorality.