dietary ethanol lipid synthesis drosophila melanogaster …

The relative fitnesses of the different Adh genotypes under normal laboratory conditions and in the absence of alcohol stress were estimated in Drosophila melanogaster according to Prout's method. The larval component (viability) did not reveal fitness differences between the genotypes but for the adult component significant differences were observed. The female adult component (fecundity) showed an overdominant pattern: both homozygous genotypes showed a relative fitness significantly lower than the heterozygous genotype. For the male adult component (virility) also differences were observed. The homozygous SS genotype showed a lower relative fitness than the other two genotypes. Predictions for gene frequency changes based on the estimated fitness values do show a reasonably good correspondence with frequency changes actually observed in a number of experimental cage populations and indicate a globally stable equilibrium around a frequency of the F allele of 0.40-0.70. The relevance of these fitness estimates, obtained under conditions with no alcohol stress, for the explanation of the Adh polymorphisms observed in nature is discussed.

pentose shunt pathway to lipid synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster: Ethanol ..

Dietary ethanol and lipid synthesis in drosophila melanogaster

While all these organelles are found in animal cells, plant cells in addition contain a central vacuole that controls pressure to stabilize the cell and chloroplasts, the site of photosynthesis or light depended biosynthesis of sugars (carbohydrates).

and ethanol tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster ..

The genetic component of cells (DNA, RNA polymers), but also important for cellular energy metabolism, signaling, and protein biosynthesis (RNA, single nucleotides).

Most triglycerides are obtained from food as fats or synthesized by the liver and stored in liver and fat cells (adipocytes).
Acetaldehyde induced sex-linked recessive lethal mutations in  Drosophila melanogaster (Woodruff et al., 1985).

Dietary ethanol and lipid synthesis in ..

Viruses are infectious particles with a DNA or RNA based small genome that can control the cellular mechanism of infected cells prompting the host cell to synthesize new viruses.

For instance, some two thirds or all human genes have orthologs in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae by ..

ABSTRACT Dietary sucrose and ethanol are potent modulators of sn-glycerol-3phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) in the third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. When added to modified Sang's medium C, 428 mM ethanol and 146 mM sucrose each increased the GPDH tissue activity more than 90 % and GPDH cross-reacting material (CRM) more than 50 % over the levels found in larvae fed the 14.6 mM sucrose control diet. When fed together, ethanol and sucrose exerted synergetic effects on GPDH activity and CRM. The activity of glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase was also stimulated by dietary ethanol and sucrose, indicating that the glycerol-3-phosphate cycle was operating in the larvae. Dietary ethanol caused similar shifts in the NADH:NAD+ ratio in wild-type and Cpdh null larvae, suggesting that the maintenance of the cofactor equilibrium is not the primary function of GPDH in larvae. Increases in triacylglycerol content associated with the administration of ethanol and sucrose to larvae suggested that the formation of glycerol-3-phosphate for use in lipid synthesis is an important function of GPDH in larvae. Because ethanol is a constituent of the natural diet of D. melanogaster, nutritional modulation of GPDH is postulated to be an important aspect of the adaptation of the

Dietary Ethanol Mediates Selection on Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Drosophila melanogaster 1

1985 Dietary ethanol and lipid synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster

Allele frequencies for the Adh, Gpdh, and Est6 enzyme polymorphisms of Drosophila melanogaster show large-scale latitudinal clines, whereas those for Pgm do not vary systematically with latitude. To elucidate possible mechanisms of selection underlying these distributions, large collections of the species were made from five Australasian localities spanning 24 degrees of latitude. Two replicate experimental populations were established from each collection, and each replicate was then released into an enclosure surrounding a natural habitat at a central-latitude locality. Genotype frequencies at the four loci were monitored for 15 months, covering 12 discrete generations, and selection coefficients on each polymorphism were then estimated by maximum likelihood procedures. For Est6 no coefficients were found to be significantly different from zero. For Pgm some nonzero coefficients were estimated, but these were heterogeneous across experimental populations of different geographic origins. For both Adh and Gpdh, nonzero selection coefficients were estimated that were homogeneous across populations and indicated heterozygote advantage. Predicted Adh and Gpdh equilibrium allele frequencies were consistent with those found in adjacent free-living populations. It is concluded that, at such intermediate latitudes at least, selection operates on the Adh and Gpdh polymorphisms to the advantage of heterozygotes.