Be able to explain the continental drift hypothesis

To my knowledge, nobody has ever invoked a climate change hypothesis for the mass extinction of South American mammals when the land bridge formed that , even though the formation of that land bridge probably triggered the current ice age and the North American invasions of South America. Most South American mammal species quickly went extinct when that had survived many millions of years of intercontinental invasions. It was a purely Darwinian event in which animals with greater carrying capacities prevailed. There was no big picture awareness of events by the invaders or invaded, just as there had never been during life’s history on Earth. They all just tried to survive, and previously isolated South American mammals quickly lost the game. The survivors were able to live in niches that no North American animals did, such as .

What is Wegener's hypothesis on the continental drift …

This very fact forms the basis of an interesting hypothesis known as the Continental Drift ..

What does the hypothesis say is in continental drift?

Evidence for Wegener's ideas on continental drift is presented on the pages that follow, and remains the root of modern continental reconstructions.

How does the continental drift hypothesis account for the apparent ..

Volcanism can not only temporarily alter the atmosphere’s chemistry, but the ash from volcanism can also block sunlight from reaching Earth’s surface and lead to atmospheric cooling. Carbon dioxide vented by volcanism in the Mesozoic era is . Tectonic plate movements can alter the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. When continental plates come together into a supercontinent, oceanic currents can fail and the oceans can become anoxic, as atmospheric oxygen is no longer drawn into the global ocean’s depths, which may have . When continents are near the poles, , but in our current ice age the tipping point is , which is affected by, among other influences, the Moon.

The idea of Alfred Wagener was to prove and show evidence to support his main topic which was the continental drift.
In a hypothesis dated 6th January 2012, Wegener proposed that there was a single landmass on Earth's surface before the continents drifted apart.

Time | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

About the time that the continents began to grow and began, Earth produced its first known glaciers, between 3.0 and 2.9 bya, although the full extent is unknown. It might have been an ice age or merely some mountain glaciation. The , and numerous competing hypotheses try to explain what produced them. Because the evidence is relatively thin, there is also controversy about the extent of Earth's ice ages. About 2.5 bya, the Sun was probably a little smaller and only about as bright as it is today, and Earth would have been a block of ice if not for the atmosphere’s carbon dioxide and methane that absorbed electromagnetic radiation, particularly in the . But life may well have been involved, particularly oxygenic photosynthesis, and it was almost certainly involved in Earth's first great ice age, which may have been a episode, and some pertinent dynamics follow.

Sea level changes related to ice age and continental uplift related to continents colliding to form Pangaea.

Nevertheless, many issues remain to be resolved

In general, the large-sized fauna guilds that have dominated the past 40 million years were well represented on all continents. thrived in all inhabitable continents and biomes that they could migrate to. In North America, mammals whose size would astound (and terrify) modern observers included the (about the largest ever), a , the , , the , and the . They only large because of today’s stunted remnant populations. With the exception of the bison, they all lived for millions of years, through numerous ice age events, all to go extinct just after humans arrived, along with many other species, such as the . The other continents had similar giants. Australia had a and the . Southeast Asia had the , which dwarfed today’s gorillas. With only Africa and parts of Eurasia as partial exceptions, virtually large fauna went extinct, worldwide, soon after human arrival, and how humans came to be is the subject of a coming chapter.

Continents closing to form Pangaea, ice age begins at end of Devonian and cause , possibly initiated by .

Energy and the Human Journey: Where We Have Been; …

Around when Harland first proposed a global ice age, a climate model developed by Russian climatologist concluded that if a Snowball Earth really happened, the runaway positive feedbacks would ensure that the planet would never thaw and become a permanent block of ice. For the next generation, that climate model made a Snowball Earth scenario seem impossible. In 1992, a professor, , that coined the term Snowball Earth. Kirschvink sketched a scenario in which the supercontinent near the equator reflected sunlight, as compared to tropical oceans that absorb it. Once the global temperature decline due to reflected sunlight began to grow polar ice, the ice would reflect even more sunlight and Earth’s surface would become even cooler. This could produce a runaway effect in which the ice sheets grew into the tropics and buried the supercontinent in ice. Kirschvink also proposed that the situation could become unstable. As the sea ice crept toward the equator, it would kill off all photosynthetic life and a buried supercontinent would no longer engage in . Those were two key ways that carbon was removed from the atmosphere in the day's , especially before the rise of land plants. Volcanism would have been the main way that carbon dioxide was introduced to the atmosphere (animal respiration also releases carbon dioxide, but this was before the eon of animals), and with two key dynamics for removing it suppressed by the ice, carbon dioxide would have increased in the atmosphere. The resultant greenhouse effect would have eventually melted the ice and runaway effects would have quickly turned Earth from an icehouse into a greenhouse. Kirschvink proposed the idea that Earth could vacillate between states.