Inhibition of Mammalian Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis …
Cell membrane inhibitors disorganize the structure or inhibit the function of bacterial membranes. The integrity of the cytoplasmic and outer membranes is vital to bacteria, and compounds that disorganize the membranes rapidly kill the cells. However, due to the similarities in phospholipids in eubacterial and eukaryotic membranes, this action is rarely specific enough to permit these compounds to be used systemically. The only antibacterial antibiotic of clinical importance that acts by this mechanism is Polymyxin, produced by Bacillus polymyxis. Polymyxin is effective mainly against Gram-negative bacteria and is usually limited to topical usage. Polymyxins bind to membrane phospholipids and thereby interfere with membrane function. Polymyxin is occasionally given for urinary tract infections caused by Pseudomonas that are gentamicin, carbenicillin and tobramycin resistant. The balance between effectiveness and damage to the kidney and other organs is dangerously close, and the drug should only be given under close supervision in the hospital.
Effect of chloramphenicol on protein synthesis in e
Inhibition of Protein Synthesis by Chloramphenicol, …
Soon after Gale & Folkes ( 1) first reported this inhibitory effect in bacteria, it became apparent that mammalian cells were remarkable resistant to chloramphenicol and that no discernible effects were demonstrable in mammalian systems unless excessive amounts of the drug were employed.
To elucidate the role of protein synthesis in DNA formation, E
It has been suggested that the inability of chloramphenicol in pharmacologic concentrations to inhibit mammalian protein synthesis accounts for the selectivity of the antibiotic for bacteria.