University of Utah, Grand Rounds Dept. of Neurology, 2011.

Daniel Palanker and his group at Stanford University havedeveloped an optoelectronic system for visual prosthesis that includes a subretinal photodiode array and an infrared imageprojection system mounted on video goggles. Information from thevideo camera is processed in a pocket PC and displayed on pulsednear-infrared (IR, 850-900 nm) video goggles. IR image isprojected onto the retina via natural eye optics, and activatesphotodiodes in the subretinal implant that convert light intopulsed bi-phasic electric current in each pixel. Charge injectioncan be further increased using a common bias voltage provided by aradiofrequency-driven implantable power supply Close proximity between electrodes and neural cells necessary forhigh resolution stimulation can be achieved utilizing effect ofretinal migration.

Scientific Computing Institute, University of Utah, 2007.

University of Utah, Department of Ophthalmology Moran Eye Center, 2002.

University of Utah, Department of Bioninfomatics, 2001.

A Southern German team led by the University Eye Hospital inTübingen, was formed in 1995 by Eberhart Zrenner to develop asubretinal prosthesis. The chip is located behind the and utilizesmicrophotodiode arrays (MPDA) which collect incident light andtransform it into electrical current stimulating the . As natural are far moreefficient than , visible light is not powerfulenough to stimulate the MPDA. Therefore, an external power supplyis used to enhance the stimulation current. The German teamcommenced in vivo experiments in 2000, when evoked corticalpotentials were measured from Yucatan micropigs and rabbits. At 14months post implantation, the implant and retina surrounding itwere examined and there were no noticeable changes to anatomicalintegrity. The implants were successful in producing evokedcortical potentials in half of the animals tested. The thresholdsidentified in this study were similar to those required inepiretinal stimulation. The latest reports from this group concernthe results of a clinical pilot study on eight participantssuffering from . Theresults were to be presented in detail on the ARVO 2007 congress inFort Lauderdale.

University of Utah: Monica Vetter

Joseph Rizzo and John Wyatt at the Massachusetts Eye and EarInfirmary and MIT began researching the feasibility of a retinalprosthesis in 1989, and performed a number of proof-of-conceptepiretinal stimulation trials on blind volunteers between 1998 and2000. They have since developed a subretinal stimulator that sitson the outside of the eye and receives image signals beamed from acamera mounted on a pair of glasses. The stimulator chip decodesthe picture information beamed from the camera and stimulates accordingly.

University of Utah, Moran Eye Center: Edward Levine

Process of my new prosthetic eye Gags Area

Studies examining the neurotransmitter properties of horizontal cell populations in the goldfish retina. CB Watt, M Kalloniatis, BW Jones and RE Marc 2000 Moran Eye Center, Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. Assoc Res Vision & Ophthalmology

Artificial Eyes & Ocularist Network

Computational molecular phenotyping. Visualizing cellular chemistry. Marc RE , Jones BW. 2001 Moran Eye Center, Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT First International Symposium on computational Cell Biology

Howard, Trust OfficerState of Utah, Division of Aging and Adult Services120 N.

at the University of Utah that is devoted mostly to developing ..

Partial Circuitry Rescue By Cones In Retinitis Pigmentosa. BW Jones, K. Kinnard, DW Marshak, RE Marc. John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. University Texas Medical School, Houston TX. Assoc Res Vision & Ophthalmology 2006.

Chow, A. Y. and N. Peachey (1999). “The subretinal microphotodiode array retinal prosthesis II.”  31(3): 246. []

The Marc Laboratory at the University of Utah

Nested feedback and Concatenated Inhibition In The Rabbit Inner Plexiform Layer. Watt CB, Yang JH, Jones BW and Marc RE. 2001 Moran Eye Center, Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT Assoc Res Vision & Ophthalmology.

The sobering  at the University of Utah indicates that some of the basic presumptions underlying retinal implantapproaches may still be questionable.

of Artificial Organs at the University of Utah headed by ..

The molecular signature of all types of rabbit retinal ganglion cells. RE Marc, BW Jones, CB Watt, MV Shaw and J-H Yang 2000 Moran Eye Center, Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. Assoc Res Vision & Ophthalmology