the broad middle part of the labellum

For emasculation the flower bud chosen should have developed to the stage just before anther dehiscence, indicated by extension of petals beyond sepals. Flowers can be emasculated at any time. The first step in emasculation is to tear away with the forceps the tip of the sepal from in front of the keel. The forefinger is positioned behind the flower and thumb in front and a light pressure is applied. This spreads the standard and wings to expose the keel. The exposed keel is slit-open by tips of forceps. Pressure can be applied by the thumb and finger on keel for increased exposure of the pistil and stamens. The 10 stamens are pulled out.

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Such an inflorescence is called a

(Think of rays of light radiating from a central star).

The internal structure of petals is much like that of green leaves, except that they are modified to
perform less (if any) photosynthesis and instead their plastids may store pigments to give the petals colour.

In these composites, the individual flowers are also called

This works on the principle of suction pressure. The spikelets are clipped off prior to operation. The minute pipette is to be shown at the point of clipping and pollen is sucked in. Six panicles can be emasculated at a time. By hand emascualtion, 100 flowers can be emasculated by a person. With the vaccum emasculator, six persons can operate and emasculate 3000 to 3600 florets/hour.

Typically the outermost circle of flowers around the edge of the capitulum, called

Floral Nectar Production and Nectary Anatomy and Ultrastructure of

In the male stage, the style has not yet
elongated far enough to position the stigma near the entrance, but the anthers are in position and visiting animals will
brush against them to collect pollen.

Cells with such wall ingrowths are called

(flower - close-up) - photo:
species page from
species page from
- - Cultivated, at Singapore Botanical Garden (whole plant) - photo:
- - Cultivated, at Singapore Botanical Garden (whole plant) from
image page from
image page from
under cultivation at the
- Branch with flower; Baton Rouge, LA - photo:
- Branch with flower; Baton Rouge, LA - photo:
- Branch with flowers and bunds; Baton Rouge, LA - photo:
- Flower, showing androecium and gynoecium; Baton Rouge, LA - photo:
- Flower in longitudinal section; Baton Rouge, LA - photo:
- Maturing gynoecium, close-up; Baton Rouge, LA - photo:
- Maturing gynoecium, close-up; Baton Rouge, LA from

The disc florets are hermaphroditic (bisexual) and are

This exclusivity evolves when a plant finds certain pollinators extremely reliable and so it rewards them by
saving its nectar by not giving it to less reliable pollinators.

The white deadnettle (White Archangel,

(Certain other plants are also heliotropic, in some cases including the open flower).

The term 'dandelion' is most often applied to plants of the genus

4 cm long, bearing a single sterile bract at apex;
RHACHIS distinctly geniculate, glabrous, green to reddish-green, 3-5 mm in diameter, slightly angulose, internodes ca.

This form of asexual reproduction is known as parthenogenesis, or more often in plants:

As nighttime approaches, plants like

Now when an
insect visits the nectaries there is no pollen left to collect, but it can easily brush the stigmas and deposit pollen from
another plant.

The passion flower is what we call an

In Europe, there are diploid forms which reproduce by normal sexual means.

They also close in low temperatures.

In the female stage, the anthers are spent and the style has elongated to position
the stigma right at the entrance to the flower, where visiting animals can easily brush against it and deposit pollen.