Pathways for ceramide synthesis

The synthesis first sugars linked to ceramide in pathway higher animals synthesis are glycosphingolipid typically -linked pathway galactose (GalCer)) pathway or glucose (GlcCer)).

All are products of the 0 pathway of ganglioside synthesis…

This substance was later named stigmasterol (Windaus and Hault, 1906) from the plantgenus.

of the ganglioside biosynthetic pathway are expressed in a cell ..

10. Giammarioli AM, Garofalo T, Sorice M, Misasi R, Gambardella L, Gradini R. . GD3 glycosphingolipid contributes to Fas-mediated apoptosis via association with ezrin cytoskeletal protein. 2001;506:45-50

enzymatic ganglioside synthesis pathway.

14. Sarkar TR, Battula VL, Werden SJ, Vijay GV, Ramirez-Peña EQ, Taube JH. . GD3 synthase regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in breast cancer. 2015;34:2958-67

23. Weigelt B, Peterse JL, Veer LJV. Breast cancer metastasis: markers and models.  2005;5:591-602
Chemically, these sterols have the same basic structure ascholesterol but differences arise from the lateral chain

Schematic picture of ganglioside synthesis pathways.

reported the reversed-phase separation of fatty acids by acomplex two-dimensional TLC employing a catalytic hydrogenationon the plate ().

First description of a direct titration method for analytical hydrogenation todetermine precisely the unsaturation of lipids ().

Discovery of O-amino acid (alanyl and lysyl) esters of phosphatidylglycerol in agram-positive bacteria ().

The first GLC analysis of natural triglycerides from milk fat was reported ().

Hematoside, the ganglioside of horse erythrocytes, is the first ganglioside(GM3) whose structure was elucidated ().

The complete structure of sulfatide (sulfated galactosylceramide) was elucidatedincluding the position of the sulfate group attached to the C3 of galactose ().

Methyl jasmonate was discovered in flowers of jasmine and was shown to be afragrant component in the essential oil from these flowers ().

Discovery of diether-type phospholipids in a an extremely halophilic bacteria () ().

First demonstration of the presence of 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid and itsglycerol ester in lipid extractsof the sea anemone, ().

GM3 Upregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 …

This oxysterol seems to play arole as a physiological regulator of cholesterol homeostasis and as atherogenicfactor.

A successful prevention of experimental hypercholesterolemia and cholesterolatherosclerosis was obtained by phytosterol ingestion in the rabbit () and a reduction of blood cholesterol wassimilarly obtained in man ().

The physiological function of vitamin D in calcium absorption in the smallintestine and the mineralization of the skeleton are described ().

GM3 upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 …

showed that the Refsum's disease in human is associated withaccumulation of phytanic acid in blood and tissues ().

First demonstration of the presence of sphingophosphonolipids in lipid extractsof the sea anemone, ().

Ceramide phosphorylethanolamine was for the first time demonstrated to bepresent in lipid extract of an insect, ().

First demonstration of a stimulation of the mitochondrial oxidation oflong-chain fatty acids, observations which led the authors to propose for thefirst time that carnitine played a specific role in the transport of acyl groupsthrough mitochondrial membranes ().

A uniform nomenclature for the gangliosides was proposed by Svennerholm L ().

The exact structure of four major gangliosides (GM1, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b) havebeen reported ().