Cell Theory consists of three principles:

For those without these lab markers, the metabolic-typing test can easily identify one’s metabolic type for about another 60 percent of the population. This takes a lot of the guesswork out of dieting. Further, the testing can, long in advance, identify those headed toward the dreaded adult-onset diabetes (type 2). The paradox of the thrifty gene is that in times of scarcity, those blessed will survive much easier than will I, who must eat every day since my body does not store energy very easily. Yet in times of plenty, they are cursed if they do not recognize their gift and sharply reduce their intake of carbs because they will store fat everywhere including in the blood vessels. Their bodies prefer fat for optimal and efficient energy production.

Rate of diffusion α Surface Area x Concentration Difference Distance

This page has been written by Ian White.

This is a similar process to aerobic respiration in mitochondria.

Type One metabolizers come the closest of all the types to being purely sympathetic dominant people. One of the chief characteristics of Type One metabolizers is that they can burn carbohydrates slowly. Their bodies utilize the carbohydrates poorly and they are able to maintain their blood sugar level with very little fluctuation. If anything, their blood sugar level stays a little elevated. With this condition, they can eat mostly fruits and vegetables, maintaining their health and feeling well. These people are what are commonly called vegetarians. They very seldom if ever crave meats (except fish) and when they eat meat, they usually feel groggy and have a loss of energy. These people do not do well on lamb, venison, beef, sardines or salmon. They can do quite well on up to 100% of their diet raw. They should stress the following foods: whole grains including spaghetti, macaroni, breads, cereals; raw (unpasteurized) goats’ milk, eggs; white fish. They may use spices, 2-3 cups of coffee (non-instant), herbal tea, or an occasional alcoholic beverage or sweet dessert (made with unrefined sugar or raw, unheated honey). They enjoy and do well on nuts and seeds; rice; fruits and vegetables like apples, apricots, bananas, berries, grapes, oranges, pears, plums, grapefruit, asparagus, lima beans, beet tops, cucumbers, sprouts, lettuce, collards, dandelion greens, kale, mustard, turnip greens, spinach, and any leafy green vegetable.

This creates a pool of protons in the periplasm.

Dr Roger Williams was given morphine to control the pain and send him to sleep after an ulcer operation. It did relieve the pain but did not send him to sleep. In fact it made his mind active. So his doctor gave him a second, heavier dose. That would surely do the trick. The result was a mind that raced even faster. He had “a long night full of torture.”

Click on the image to enlarge and see the image below for a labeled version.

The structure of a mitochondrion

It should now be clear why the enzymes for oxidative phosphorylation in aerobic conditions are membrane bound. Only in this way could a proton gradient be established. Protons must be vectorially transferred in one direction only for a gradient to be established!

The mitochondria are the site of aerobic respiration.


The Gibbs energy change under such conditions (temperature 310oK,or 37oC) will be


This figure, calculated from the actual concentrations of thereaction components, reflects the energy available as a driving forcefor any other process coupled to ATP hydrolysis under given conditions.
It follows that the same 49.6 kJ mol-1 must be provided bythe proton transport across the membrane down the electrochemicalgradient to maintain such a high ATP/ADP ratio.

Both symporters and antiporters are examples of

rabies virus genomic RNA is not infectious, as it requires a copy of the viral-encoded polymerase (RNA-dependent RNA
polymerase) to read it and make the complementary RNA strand (synthesising RNA from an RNA template is not a normal
process in cells).

Thus viruses are pirates that take over cells.

The standard freshman biology textbook presentation focuses narrowly on glucose metabolism by animal cells, barely touches on fats and amino acids, and ignores most of the metabolic diversity of life. Moreover, the standard textbook version of how this elaborate metabolic network evolved beginning with is probably wrong, accordingly to the compelling essay by ).

It takes 1024 protons to bring about one revolution of the motor in

In this class, we will take an evolutionary approach that begins with concepts and processes fundamental to all living cells, that must have been present in the last universal common ancestor (LUCA).