# Here we use a two sided hypothesis test,

involves the careful construction of two statements: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. These hypotheses can look very similar, but are actually different.

## a character string describing the alternativehypothesis.

### 1. Which of the following pair is the null hypothesis?

To perform a chi-squared test of the null hypothesis that the true population proportions falling in the four categories are the same for both the Hyades and non-Hyades stars, use the function:

Since we already know these two groups differ with respect to the B.V variable,the result of this test is not too surprising.

### 2. Which of the following pair is the null hypothesis?

The **Input **hypothesis is Krashen's attempt to explain how thelearner acquires a second language – how second language acquisition takes place. The Input hypothesis is only concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'.According to this hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. For example, if a learner is at a stage 'i', then acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to 'Comprehensible Input' that belongs to level 'i + 1'. We can then define 'Comprehensible Input' as the target language that the learner would not be able to produce but can still understand. It goes beyond the choice of words and involves presentation of context, explanation, rewording of unclear parts, the use of visual cues and meaning negotiation. The meaning successfully conveyed constitutes the learning experience.

## R linear regression test hypothesis for zero slope - …

The **Natural Order** hypothesis is based on research findings (Dulay & Burt, 1974; Fathman, 1975; Makino, 1980 cited in Krashen, 1987) which suggested that the acquisition of grammatical structures follows a 'natural order' which is predictable. For a given language, some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. This order seemed to be independent of the learners' age, L1 background, conditions of exposure, and although the agreement between individual acquirers was not always 100% in the studies, there were statistically significant similarities that reinforced the existence of a Natural Order of language acquisition. Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies. In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition.

## linearHypothesis function | R Documentation

But it does give a qualitatively differentway to compare these two distributions than simply comparing their means.

The p-value produced above is based on the fact that the chi-squared statistic isapproximately distributed like a true chi-squared distribution (on 3 degrees of freedom,in this case) if the null hypothesis is true.