"A natural approach to the acquisition and learningof a language".

72), once again there isno theoretical basis for what to choose. Perhaps the most glaringomission is the lack of any reference to the Natural Order Hypothesis,which as noted previously, contained no realistically usable informationfor designing curriculum.

The natural approach is a method of language teaching ..

The Natural Approach grew out of Terrell's experiences teaching Spanish classes.
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Krashen and Terrell's "Natural Approach" - Stanford …


Once beyond one-word answersto questions, the Natural Approach ventures out onto thin ice by suggestingelicited productions. These take the form of open-ended sentences,open dialogs and even prefabricated patterns (p.84). These formatsnecessarily involve explicit use of grammar, which violates every hypothesisof the Monitor Model. The authors write this off as training foroptimal Monitor use (p.71, 142), despite Krashen’s promotion of “Monitor-free”production. Even if a teacher were to set off in this direction andbegin to introduce a “structure of the day” (p.

The Natural Approach Stephen Krashen’s Theory of …

The most protracted debate about the efficacy of bilingual education has taken place in California, where private initiatives pass into law if they gain majority support in a referendum. Under the auspices of the 1968 Bilingual Education Act many Californian schools offered bilingual programmes for their increasing Hispanic populations. Then in 1998 the state's voters approved Proposition 227, a bill sponsored by Republican Ron Unz (2001), which virtually banned bilingual education at the expense of English-only models (in most cases one-year structured English immersion classes). The majority support (61%) for the proposition reflected the public's resistance to language diversity - the assimilative metaphor of the melting pot is deeply engrained in American consciousness. Krashen (2007) claims that voters were mislead by politicians and by media treatment of the issue. They were led to believe in the mutual exclusivity of learning English effectively and being educated bilingually. Krashen admits that educators and academics were ineffective in helping the public to a better understanding of what they were voting on.

Like Communi­cativeLanguage Teaching, the Natural Approach is hence evolutionary rather than revolutionary in its procedures.
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The Natural Approach and Second Language Acquisition

The term natural approach (or natural method) was first used in the nineteenth century to describe teaching methods, such as the direct method, that attempted to mirror the processes of learning a first language. Translation and grammar explanations were rejected, learners were exposed to sequences of actions, and the spoken form was taught before the written form. The term was resurrected by Tracy Terrell in the 1970s to describe a similar kind of approach. Learners were initially exposed to meaningful language, not forced to speak until they felt ready to, and not corrected or given explicit grammar instruction. The method was characterized by a lot of teacher talk, made intelligible through the use of visual aids and actions. The method was endorsed by Stephen Krashen, whose input hypothesis gave it theoretical validity. It also shared many principles in common with Total Physical Response (TPR). These included the importance of comprehensible input, and of promoting positive affect in the learning process. The natural approach seems to have become absorbed into what are generally known as humanistic teaching practices and whole language learning.

Krashen’s Natural Order Hypothesis ..



The Natural Approach (NA) is a product of Stephen Krashen, an applied linguist at the University of Southern California and Tracy Terrell, a teacher of Spanish in California. Krashen's work on second language acquisition and Terrell's teaching experiences form the bases of the Natural Approach. The principles and practices of this new approach have been published in "The Natural Approach" (Krashen and Terrell, 1983). The book contains theoretical sections prepared by Krashen and sections on implementation and classroom procedures prepared mostly by Terrell. The most striking proposal of the NA theory is that adults can still acquire second languages and that the ability to 'pick up' languages does not disappear at puberty. Thus, Krashen's contribution to Chomsky's LAD proposition is that adults follow the same principles of Universal Grammar. The theory behind the NA implies that adults can acquire all but the phonological aspect of any foreign language, by using their ever-active LAD. What makes adults different from children is their abstract problem solving skills that make them consciously process the grammar of a foreign language. Therefore, adults have two paths to follow: Acquisition and learning. However, children have only one: Acquisition.

In their book, Krashen and Terrell refer to their method of picking up ability in another language directly without instruction in its grammar as 'the traditional approach'. They consider their approach as a traditional one whereas many methodologists consider Grammar Translation Method as the traditional method. For Krashen, even Grammar Translation Method is not as old and traditional as the method of acquiring a language in its natural environment, a method which has been used for hundreds of thousands of years.

The term 'natural' emphasizes that the principles behind the NA are believed to conform to the naturalistic principles found in successful second language acquisition. One may think that the Natural Approach and the Natural Method are similar. The Natural Method (or the Direct Method) and the Natural Approach differ in that the former lays more emphasis on teacher monologues, formal questions and answers, and error correction. Krashen and Terrell note that "the Natural Approach is in many ways the natural, direct method 'rediscovered'[and] it is similar to other communicative approaches being developed today". The Natural Approach, like TPR, is regarded as a comprehension-based approach because of its emphasis on initial delay(silent period) in the production of language. What is novel is that the NA focuses on exposure to input instead of grammar practice, and on emotional preparedness for acquisition to take place.

Krashen’s Natural Order Hypothesis says that we ..

The emphasis on the central role of comprehension in the Natural Approach links it to other comprehension-basedapproaches in language teaching.