1991 DIRECT SYNTHESIS OF LIQUID-PHASE DIOXYGEN DIFLUORIDE ..
The tubes were refrigerated by a liquid oxygen bath ..
We define Liquid Flame Spray (LFS) as one certain type of flame spray pyrolysis, where the combustion gas and oxidizing gas are hydrogen and oxygen, respectively. It is specific, that the combustion gas is also acting as an atomizing gas and no other gaseous components are necessarily needed in the process. It is notable that hydrogen driven flames have also been widely used and studied elsewhere, and utilized by e.g. , , , , and .
Liquid Oxygen | Adenosine Triphosphate | Oxygen
Depending on the properties of the liquid precursor, e.g. volatility, concentration and temperature of the decomposition, the remaining residual particles may be moderately large. In the worst case, the residual particle diameter may remain in the order of 100 nm – 1 μm. This is not by any means advantageous for the nanopowder production, since the specific surface area of the powder will inevitably be decreased. The importunate problem has recently been solved for the case of conventional methane/oxygen FSP-flame by introducing specific chemical components in the precursor to induce droplet explosion (; ; ). In their case, DEGBE (diethylene glycol monobutyl ether) or EHA (2-ethylhexanoic acid) were introduced into the precursor liquid, using concentration levels of 50 % for these chemicals. In the case of our hydrogen driven LFS, it was recently found out that already less than 5 % of EHA in the precursor solution (containing aluminum nitrate) may be sufficient to induce the desired explosion of the precursor droplets, and thereby avoiding residual particle formation ().