Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis of Schizophrenia - …

While multiple theories have been put forth regarding the origin of schizophrenia, by far the vast majority of evidence points to the neurodevelopmental model in which developmental insults as early as late first or early second trimester lead to the activation of pathologic neural circuits during adolescence or young adulthood leading to the emergence of positive or negative symptoms. In this report, we examine the evidence from brain pathology (enlargement of the cerebroventricular system, changes in gray and white matters, and abnormal laminar organization), genetics (changes in the normal expression of proteins that are involved in early migration of neurons and glia, cell proliferation, axonal outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and apoptosis), environmental factors (increased frequency of obstetric complications and increased rates of schizophrenic births due to prenatal viral or bacterial infections), and gene-environmental interactions (a disproportionate number of schizophrenia candidate genes are regulated by hypoxia, microdeletions and microduplications, the overrepresentation of pathogen-related genes among schizophrenia candidate genes) in support of the neurodevelopmental model. We relate the neurodevelopmental model to a number of findings about schizophrenia. Finally, we also examine alternate explanations of the origin of schizophrenia including the neurodegenerative model.

Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia | …

17/09/2016 · What is schizophrenia: A neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative ..

A neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative ..

N2 - While multiple theories have been put forth regarding the origin of schizophrenia, by far the vast majority of evidence points to the neurodevelopmental model in which developmental insults as early as late first or early second trimester lead to the activation of pathologic neural circuits during adolescence or young adulthood leading to the emergence of positive or negative symptoms. In this report, we examine the evidence from brain pathology (enlargement of the cerebroventricular system, changes in gray and white matters, and abnormal laminar organization), genetics (changes in the normal expression of proteins that are involved in early migration of neurons and glia, cell proliferation, axonal outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and apoptosis), environmental factors (increased frequency of obstetric complications and increased rates of schizophrenic births due to prenatal viral or bacterial infections), and gene-environmental interactions (a disproportionate number of schizophrenia candidate genes are regulated by hypoxia, microdeletions and microduplications, the overrepresentation of pathogen-related genes among schizophrenia candidate genes) in support of the neurodevelopmental model. We relate the neurodevelopmental model to a number of findings about schizophrenia. Finally, we also examine alternate explanations of the origin of schizophrenia including the neurodegenerative model.

the neurodevelopmental hypothesis.

AB - While multiple theories have been put forth regarding the origin of schizophrenia, by far the vast majority of evidence points to the neurodevelopmental model in which developmental insults as early as late first or early second trimester lead to the activation of pathologic neural circuits during adolescence or young adulthood leading to the emergence of positive or negative symptoms. In this report, we examine the evidence from brain pathology (enlargement of the cerebroventricular system, changes in gray and white matters, and abnormal laminar organization), genetics (changes in the normal expression of proteins that are involved in early migration of neurons and glia, cell proliferation, axonal outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and apoptosis), environmental factors (increased frequency of obstetric complications and increased rates of schizophrenic births due to prenatal viral or bacterial infections), and gene-environmental interactions (a disproportionate number of schizophrenia candidate genes are regulated by hypoxia, microdeletions and microduplications, the overrepresentation of pathogen-related genes among schizophrenia candidate genes) in support of the neurodevelopmental model. We relate the neurodevelopmental model to a number of findings about schizophrenia. Finally, we also examine alternate explanations of the origin of schizophrenia including the neurodegenerative model.

neuropathological and longitudinal studies of schizophrenia often support a neurodegenerative hypothesis.
Abstract. Schizophrenia is a disorder of cerebral disconnectivity whose lifetime course is modeled as both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative. The neurod

The Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis ..

If schizophrenia is a purely developmental disorder, our focus will be limited to understanding its etiology and refining preventive strategies. If a neurodegenerative element is present, then we will focus on prevention, early intervention, and treatment strategies. The label of developmental disorder also conveys a sense of therapeutic nihilism which may be detrimental. The presence of neurodevelopmental anomalies does not rule out neurodegeneration as a significant presence in schizophrenia and vice versa. Direct comparisons of the theories are not possible but the strengths and weaknesses of each theory can be examined.

01/09/2015 · The neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative hypotheses are current general pathophysiological theories relating to schizophrenia

Review paper about the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia

Considering childhood developmental abnormalities, many long-term follow-up studies, both retrospective and prospective, suggest a variety of signs, symptoms, conditions and behaviors associated with raised risk for schizophrenia, but no study is strong enough as to be useful in prediction. Earlier report on high risk groups showed that offspring of schizophrenic parents were more likely to have lower IQ, poor attention skills, thought disorder-like symptoms, poor social adjustment and psychiatric symptoms compared to offspring of controls []. Although several concerns have been raised regarding generalization of high risk findings to non-familial forms of schizophrenia, recent longitudinal studies provided evidence that individuals with schizophrenia differ from their peers even in early childhood in several developmental markers, such as age of attaining developmental milestones, levels of cognitive functioning, educational achievement, neurological and motor development, social competence and psychological disturbances. Prospectively collected data from a birth cohort in New Zealand [] showed that schizophrenic subjects should have suffered significant deficit in neuro-motoric, linguistic and cognitive development in the first decade of their lives. The authors say that the compelling evidence linking an array of childhood developmental abnormalities and schizophrenia echoes with the hypothesis that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder.

09/10/2017 · The neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative hypotheses are current general pathophysiological theories relating to schizophrenia

The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of ..

Purpose/Objective: We discuss recent evidences about schizophrenia (frequency, onset, course, risk factors and genetics) and their influences to some epidemiological myths about schizophrenia diffuse between psychiatric and psychopathology clinicians. The scope is to evaluate if the new acquisitions may change the rehabilitation approaches to schizophrenia modifying the balance about the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia accepting that the cognitive deficits are produced by errors during the normal development of the brain (neurodevelopmental hypothesis) that remains stable in the course of illness and the neurodegenerative hypothesis according of which they derived from a degenerative process that goes on inexorably. Research Method/Design: A review of the literature about epidemiology of schizophrenia has been performed and the contributions of some of these evidence to neurodevelopmental hypothesis and to rehabilitation has been described. Results: It cannot be definitively concluded for or against the neurodevelopmental or degenerative hypothesis, but efforts in understanding basis of schizophrenia must go on. Until now, rehabilitation programs are based on the vulnerabilitystress model: supposing an early deficit that go on stable during the life under favorable circumstances. So, rehabilitation approaches (as neuro-cognitive approaches, social skill training, cognitive-emotional training) are focused on the individual and micro-group coping skills, aiming to help people with schizophrenia to cope with environmental stress factors. Conclusions/Implications: Coping of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia may represents the starting-point for further research on schizophrenia, cohort studies and randomized trials are necessary to defined the range of effectiveness and the outcome of the treatments.