New Alcohol Dehydrogenases for the Synthesis of Chiral ..
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Synthetic Organic Chemistry resume in Seoul, South …
Terpenoids are applied in varying areas of human interest: flavor and fragrance industry–volatile monoterpenoids like citronellal, citral, geraniol, (−)-menthol; pharmaceutical industry–anticancer agent taxol; agriculture–iridoids and sesquiterpene lactones which are used as insect feeding deterrents (Walton and Brown ). Despite variety of applications and activity of terpenoids, there are attempts to modify their base structure to enhance their properties. This can be achieved by applying chemical synthesis or biotransformations. In many cases, organic synthesis is not a method of choice of structural modifications of complicated terpenoids due to side reactions, low regio- and enantioselectivity, low yields, and application of expensive catalysts comprising transition metal ions.
New alcohol dehydrogenases for synthesis of ..
Terpenoids are group of compounds of natural origin biosynthesized from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP). Structurally, they are saturated and unsaturated cyclic and aliphatic hydrocarbons with varying degrees of oxygenation, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. Terpenoids can be divided into subclasses according to number of isoprene units in their structure. Condensation of IPP and DMAPP leads to geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP, C10) which is a precursor in biosynthesis of monoterpenoids and iridoids. Reaction between GPP and IPP gives farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP, C15)–precursor in biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids and sesquiterpenoid lactones. Condensation of two units of FPP leads to triterpenoids (C30). Among them are limonoids, cardenolides, quassinoids, cucrbitacins, saponins, and phytosterols. From terpenoids, we can also distinguish diterpenoids class (C20) which originate from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate.
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