Nitrobenzene for synthesis | VWR

Fletcher et al. (1990) studied the effect of nitrobenzene on soybean () plants. The roots of the plant were exposed to a hydroponic solution containing 14C-labelled nitrobenzene at 0.02–100 µg/litre for a 72-h exposure period. The chemical concentration in the solution was monitored, and the photosynthetic and transpiration rates were measured. The plants were dissected into roots and shoots and analysed for 14C label and for nitrobenzene. There was no effect on transpiration or photosynthesis at the highest concentration tested (100 µg/litre), although root growth was inhibited.


1-FLUORO-4-NITROBENZENE FOR SYNTHESIS Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.

It is a colorless hygroscopic liquid with a strong odor

In an hepatocyte DNA repair test, rats were gavaged with nitrobenzene at 200 or 500 mg/kg of body weight and killed after 12 h; their livers were then removed, and primary cultures of hepatocytes were incubated with [3H]thymidine. There was no evidence of any increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis (Mirsalis et al., 1982).

Tetrazole synthesis - Organic chemistry

Based on air studies and on estimates of releases during manufacture, only populations in the vicinity of manufacturing activities (i.e., producers and industrial consumers of nitrobenzene for subsequent synthesis) and petroleum refining plants are likely to have any significant exposure to nitrobenzene (see section 5.1). However, consideration of possible groundwater (see section 5.1.2) and soil contamination (see section 5.1.4) and uptake of nitrobenzene by plants (see section 4.3.2) expands the population with the potential for higher exposures to those people living in and around abandoned hazardous waste sites.

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From available records, it is apparent that there has been a significant increase in annual production of nitrobenzene over the past 30–40 years. Most is retained in closed systems for use in further synthesis, particularly of aniline, but also of substituted nitrobenzenes and anilines. Losses during production of nitrobenzene are likely to be low; when nitrobenzene is used as a solvent, however, emissions may be higher. Nitrobenzene has been shown to be emitted from sewage sludge incineration units and has been measured in air at hazardous waste landfills.

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In the Burns et al. (1994) 2-week gavage study in B6C3F1 mice, the dose was close to an MTD, with 8.5% of animals dying during the exposure period. (This study is reported in detail in section 7.8, because it was specifically designed to look at the potential immunotoxicity of nitrobenzene.) Gross histopathology revealed severe congestion of the splenic red pulp with erythrocytes and reticulocytes and haemosiderin pigmentation in the mid- and high-dose groups (100 and 300 mg/kg of body weight per day). Haematology indicated red blood cells to be the primary target, with a dose-dependent decrease in red blood cell numbers and concomitant increases in mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume and a dose-dependent increase in peripheral reticulocytes (almost 5-fold at the high dose). Leukocyte numbers were not significantly affected. In bone marrow, there were dose-dependent increases in the number of nucleated cells per femur (62% at the high dose), in DNA synthesis in the whole cell population (80% at the high dose) and in the number of monocyte/granulocyte stem cells. Increased bilirubin at the high dose could have arisen from liver damage or by increased erythropoiesis or haemolysis.

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The removal of nitrobenzene was determined in a complete-mix, bench-scale, continuous-flow activated sludge reactor fed a synthetic wastewater containing a mixture of readily degradable compounds as well as the compound under study. The activated sludge was sampled from a municipal treatment plant and acclimated to the nitrobenzene-containing wastewater prior to the test. The reactors were operated with a hydraulic retention time of 8 h. Following acclimation, samples were collected over a test period of 60 days and monitored for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), TOC, COD and nitrobenzene (GC analysis). About 76–98% of the concentration of nitrobenzene applied to the influent (100 mg/litre) was removed during the column passage (Stover & Kincannon, 1983).

1-Ethoxy-4-nitrobenzene(100-29-8) - NIST

Nitrobenzene does not occur naturally. It is a synthetic compound, more than 95% of which is used in the production of aniline, a major chemical intermediate that is used in the manufacture of polyurethanes; nitrobenzene is also used as a solvent in petroleum refining, as a solvent in the manufacture of cellulose ethers and acetates, in the manufacture of dinitrobenzenes and dichloroanilines, and in the synthesis of other organic compounds, including acetaminophen.