If yes, in favour of what alternative hypothesis?
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Nondirectional Hypotheses - SAGE Research Methods
Note 7. Therapists are wise to decode their feelings of being punished in order to uncover their possible anger-base even though they can explain neither the exact nature of the punishment nor the reason for it. It may be that in punishing their therapists, clients are asking them to respond positively to a negative experience. They are hoping to revise their beliefs about themselves and their interpersonal worlds through witnessing their therapists return good for evil. On the other hand, therapists’ feelings of being punished may stem from their being taken for granted, used, or even abused. They may resent having to give precious time to clients whose issues seem mundane in comparison with the horrific problems of other clients. After therapists have worked with sexual abuse victims or have been victimized themselves, for example, they may find it difficult to appreciate clients’ distress resultant from a relatively minor setback such as receiving a poor essay grade. ()
What are some examples of directional hypotheses? - …
The role of induction is expanding knowledge, whereas deductions role is transmitting truth (Giere 1979). Deductive reasoning scrutinizes the study design and identifies associations which are not empirically true, but just logically true. Such associations are not a matter of fact, but logical necessities. For example, a selection bias occurs when the exposed group is selected among ill people (as when we start a cohort study recruiting as exposed to vinyl chloride a cluster of liver angiosarcoma cases) or when the unexposed group is selected among healthy people. In both instances the association which is found between exposure and disease is necessarily (logically) but not empirically true (Vineis 1991).
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13/09/2016 · How to Write a Hypothesis
There are several advantages to categorizing individual exposures in as much detail as possible. Clearly, the informativeness of a study will be enhanced to the extent that the relevant exposures have been adequately described. Secondly, the credibility of the findings may be increased because the potential for confounding can be addressed more satisfactorily. For example, referents and exposed individuals will differ as to exposure status, but may also differ relative to other measured and unmeasured explanatory factors for the disease of interest. However, if an exposure gradient can be established within the study population, it is less likely that the same degree of confounding will persist within exposure subgroups, thus strengthening the overall study findings.