also dictates where termination of RNA synthesis ..
What Is the Role of DNA in Protein Synthesis
There are twenty amino acids to choose from for protein synthesis, and a total of 64 triplet codons (four bases in triplet sequence = 4x4x4 combinations).
To understand the role of DNA in protein synthesis, ..
The use of RNAs as scaffolds for biomedical applications has several advantages compared with other existing nanomaterials. These include (i) programmability, (ii) precise control over folding and self-assembly, (iii) natural functionalities as exemplified by ribozymes, riboswitches, RNAi, editing, splicing, and inherent translation and transcription control mechanisms, (iv) biocompatibility, (v) relatively low immune response, and (vi) relatively low cost and ease of production. We have tapped into several of these properties and functionalities to construct RNA-based functional nanoparticles (RNA NPs). In several cases, the structural core and the functional components of the NPs are inherent in the same construct. This permits control over the spatial disposition of the components, intracellular availability, and precise stoichiometry.
The synthesis usually requires ..
The sequence of bases in DNA can be thought of as the "letters" that provide the basis for the genetic code for all of the proteins synthesized by our bodies, and these, in turn, provide the basis for the structure of all of our cells, all of our enzymes, and all of our inherited traits and characteristics. As noted above, the genetic code is contained in chromosomes which are gigantic molecules of DNA complexed with proteins and wound into a compact structure. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, which carry our entire genome. In eukaryotes chromosomes are located in the cell nucleus, but prokaryotes (bacteria) have a more primitive cellular structure, and they do not have a true nucleus. Instead, the single bacterial chromosome is in the cytoplasm in an area sometimes referred to as the "nucleoid." The production of cellular proteins requires two major processes.
Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, ..
This publication represents the construction of the largest synthetic molecule of a defined structure; the genome is almost double the size of the previous Mycoplasma genitalium synthesis. With this successful proof of principle, the group will now work on creating a minimal genome, which has been a goal since 1995. They will do this by whittling away at the synthetic genome and repeating transplantation experiments until no more genes can be disrupted and the genome is as small as possible. This minimal cell will be a platform for analyzing the function of every essential gene in a cell.