Photosynthesis – the light dependent stage and Calvin cycle

Did the control of fire to , ? Or did merely use it to begin dominating the world? Was cooking the seminal event in the appearance of humans? Those questions may not be definitively answered in my lifetime, and led to the somewhat uncertain title of this chapter. Highly transformative developments coincided with the appearance and dispersal of , which was a radical break from all that came before – biologically, technically, and culturally – and strongly implies great cognitive enhancements. I believe that the control of fire and cooking would leave deep cultural and biological impacts on the human journey, and because barely changed during its nearly two-million year tenure on Earth, both in biology and in Acheulean artifacts, I favor Wrangham’s hypothesis, at least until the Next Big Finding. Just as Einstein said that and that his theories would one day become obsolete, but that their best parts would survive in the new theories, I suspect that significant aspects of Wrangham’s hypothesis will live on in successor hypotheses, and other scientists have been following Wrangham’s lead.

Photosynthesis - Calvin Cycle - McGraw-Hill Education

If you missed class or would like to see it again:  Draw Photosynthesis videos

The Calvin Cycle or Dark Reactions Photosynthesis - YouTube

Carbon dioxide, on the other hand, has been generally decreasing as an atmospheric gas for billions of years, and has . The geochemical process is like nitrogen's in that atmospheric water combines with carbon dioxide to form a weak acid, which then falls to Earth in precipitation. But carbon is in the same elemental family as an abundant crustal element: . in crustal compounds and turns into in a process called . Most of Earth’s was probably removed by this process, although the exact mechanisms are in dispute. In all paleoclimate studies, carbon dioxide is a prominent variable, if not prominent variable, for determining Earth’s surface temperature. But perhaps as early as three bya, life became a significant source of carbon removal from the atmosphere, as life forms died and sank to the ocean floor, were subsequently buried by , and further buried them into Earth’s crust and mantle.

Chapter 7: Photosynthesis Calvin Cycle

In the earliest days of life on Earth, it had to solve the problems of how to reproduce, how to separate itself from its environment, how to acquire raw materials, and how to make the chemical reactions that it needed. But it was confined to those areas where it could take advantage of briefly available potential energy as . The earliest process of skimming energy from energy gradients to power life is called respiration. That earliest respiration is today called because there was virtually no free oxygen in the atmosphere or ocean in those early days. Respiration was life’s first energy cycle. A biological energy cycle begins by harvesting an energy gradient (usually by a proton crossing a membrane or, in photosynthesis, directly capturing photon energy), and the acquired energy powered chemical reactions. The cycle then proceeds in steps, and the reaction products of each step sequentially use a little more energy from the initial capture until the initial energy has been depleted and the cycle’s molecules are returned to their starting point and ready for a fresh influx of energy to repeat the cycle.

The chain provides energy from the creation of ATP needed in the Calvin Cycle.
First time the energy of the hydrological cycle is harnessed for use on land.

[Animation] - Light-dependent reaction and Calvin Cycle

In , deforestation and the introduction of sheep was an effective method of turning forests into deserts. Within a few centuries, Crete was turned from thick forest to sheep pasture, and a civilization arose, briefly flourished, and vanished. In the Fertile Crescent and the Mediterranean's periphery, introducing goats was another way to ensure that forests never reappeared. Goats easily climb into trees to eat them, but the primary damage that goats and sheep inflicted was that they ate any attempts by the forest to regenerate. Also, their hooves pounded the ground, flattening and compacting the soils, and completed the process begun with deforestation of killing the soil’s role in the hydrological cycle.

Animation: Calvin Cycle

Calvin Cycle Animations - Ms. Doran's Biology Class

Ice ages are an important realm of scientific investigation. Humanity’s colossal burning of Earth’s hydrocarbon deposits may well be delaying the ice sheets' return; they have been advancing and retreating in rhythmic fashion for . Today, the current pattern's accepted tipping point has been Earth’s orientation toward the Sun, particularly the , which has a roughly 100,000-year cycle. Although Earth’s orientation is universally considered to be the tipping point variable, it is not the only influence. The ultimate cause has been . about 35 mya due to its position near the South Pole and declining carbon dioxide levels. The current ice age began 2.5 mya and was likely initiated by the , which separated the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and radically altered oceanic currents. Also, . Those factors all contributed to the current ice age.

It might help you to understand all of this if we look at what goes in and what comesout of the Calvin cycle in tabular form.

5.2.1 Photosynthesis e) f) Calvin Cycle ..

Many different technologies have been developed that attempted to harness the zero-point field, and devices made from rotating magnets seem to be the most common prototypes (the effect begins to appear at about 2,000 RPMs in devices), but a solid-state device similar to would be the likely “winner” in any FE device contest. included concepts such as manipulating the space-time continuum, inter-dimensional energy transfer, and other fantastic ideas that nobody has an easy time comprehending. Sparky's paper could be seen as merely pretty and fanciful theorizing, but his device worked. I will never forget the awe in my close associate's voice as he described ice forming on Sparky's device as it began churning out electricity, and the wiring configuration defied conventional notions of electricity. Ice forming on it, as it begins outputting great amounts of energy (Sparky's device produced one million times more energy than went into it), is not confined to Sparky's device; in the FE field, that effect is one of the most impressive pieces of evidence that a device is accessing the zero-point field. A radically different physics than is taught to mainstream scientists in the early 21st century explains why Sparky's device worked. Sparky's device also produced antigravity effects, and the for which the research went black in the 1950s needed vast amounts of energy to operate. Those technologies far past what Sparky created in his home. FE and antigravity are interrelated in more ways than one, and the vision presented in this chapter will assume that those technologies are universally used by humanity.