High protein requirement in cats uses energy from.

Adequate energy must be supplied by the diet to make efficient use of dietary protein. The optimum energy density varies with species, digestive system, age and environment. In the ruminant, sufficient nitrogen and rumen degradable protein must be supplied to maximise bacterial fermentation, energy digestibility and feed intake. For young, fast growing animals and high yielding lactating animals, aim to feed high-energy diets to maximise production potential of animal protein. In older or less productive animals lower energy diets may be used to achieve maximum protein deposition or secretion without excess fat deposition. Include just sufficient protein with a good amino acid balance to support maximum protein deposition at the highest possible efficiency. Surplus protein may increase protein deposition through enhanced protein turnover, reduced efficiency of retention, greater N excretion and pollution, but with reduced net energy, less fat deposition and improved carcass composition. Protein requirements, expressed as a percentage of diet or as a protein-energy ratio, decline with age in growing animals. Phase feeding multiple diets with decreasing protein content reduces environmental pollution. Fish have lower energy requirements and require a greater protein: metabolizable energy (ME) ratio. For mammals and birds, express amino acid requirements and feed values as true ileal digestibility. For fish, faecal values suffice or can be estimated using faecal digestibility in mink or ileal digestibility in chicks. Choose protein supplements to provide amino acids that complement amino acids of basic (usually cereal) energy sources. In ruminants, the supplement should provide undegradable but intestinally digested amino acids to complement microbial protein. Methionine (or methionine + cystine) and lysine are first or second limiting. Protein requirements are reduced, with less pollution, by selecting proteins and amino acid supplements to approach the ideal protein pattern, but specifying maximum levels for excess amino acids will increase cost. Determine marginal response to amino acid supply to calculate target amino acid level in feed.

Requirement of the Components: The protein synthesis may be ..

By the way, adult men 25 to 51+ years of age need 63 grams of protein per day.

for the supply of energy in protein synthesis.

Zinc is an essential nutrient that must be provided in the diet. Its functions are multiple and include catalytic (zinc is a cofactor in many enzymes) and structural (zinc helps to stabilise some protein structures [zinc fingers]) roles.

Zinc deficiency in dogs has been reported. It is termed zinc-responsive dermatosis (Colombini 1999) and manifests as poor growth rate and skin lesions.

The NRC 1985 recommended requirement for zinc in puppies was thought to be very low � close to that reported to cause deficiency (Booles 1991).

between 5-10% of your energy requirement is provided by protein.

Protein consists of amino acids that are classified as essential (because they can�t be synthesised by the body) or non-essential (because the body can synthesise them).
Dietary protein must provide sufficient amino acids to satisfy the body�s metabolic requirement. Aspects of this can be measured as:
Dietary protein requirements are also dependent on energy intake, life-stage (growth increases the requirement), lifestyle (physical activity increases the requirement), and other factors such as disease.
Compared with other species, the cat has a higher dietary protein requirement (NRC 2006). This has been attributed to a lack of metabolic flexibility, with less efficient adaption of feline hepatic nitrogen catabolic enzymes to dietary protein intake (Rogers . 1977).

WALTHAM has contributed to the understanding of protein metabolism and dietary protein requirement of the adult cat by:
Burger IH, Blaza SE, Kendall PT, Smith PM. The protein requirement of adult cats for maintenance. Feline Pract 1984;14(2):8-14.

Unfolded protein response - Wikipedia

The protein metabolism of the cat adapts to moderate-to-high levels of dietary protein as in other species

Whole-body techniques often used in other species, including humans were applied to cats. These techniques included protein turnover (using a tracer), macronutrient oxidation (using indirect calorimetry), and urea kinetics (using a tracer). The nutritionally-complete diets were designed to provide moderate (20�35% of energy) and higher (52�70% of energy) levels of protein.

In collaboration with Prof Joe Millward (University of Surrey) and Dr Gerald Lobley (Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen), feline protein turnover was found to adapt to dietary protein intake when fed above minimal requirements (Russell 2003). This was the first time whole body protein turnover had been measured in the cat.

Feline amino acid oxidation was also correlated with protein intake (Russell et al. 2002). This study was in collaboration with Peter Murgatroyd (University of Cambridge), and was the first time calorimetry had been used to measure protein oxidation in the cat.
A study of feline urea kinetics in collaboration with Prof Joe Millward (University of Surrey) and Dr Gerald Lobley (Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen) found that urea production was related to dietary protein level (Russell . 2000). However, there was a low level and lack of nutritional sensitivity of urea entry and hydrolysis into the gut, and subsequent retention of urea nitrogen for anabolism (Russell 2000). This was the first time urea kinetics had been measured in the cat.

This research shows that, as with other species, these aspects of feline protein metabolism adapt to dietary protein intake when fed above minimal requirements demonstrating a degree of metabolic flexibility.

Ask the Dietitian: Protein requirements can be met by the American diet

Calculate Your Recommended Protein Intake - Bodybuilding…

Mild heating in the presence of reducing sugars or aldehydes results in loss of available lysine with little change in digestibility. Mild to moderate heating causes loss of sulphydryl groups, formation of disulphide cross links, racemisation of L to D-aspartic acid and reduced digestibility of all amino acids. Moisture content during heating is critical in both losses of available lysine and of sulphydryl groups. Mild processing gives best digestibility for monogastric animals and is especially important for young mammals and fish. Ruminant feeds benefit from more severe heat treatment and special processing to reduce protein degradability when amino acid composition is well balanced. Growth under commercial conditions is often less than under good experimental conditions, reflecting challenges to the immune system. Dietary proteins can both cause and affect an immune response. Dietary proteins may need special processing to reduce antigenic factors. The presence of dietary fibre, phytic acid or tannins in protein feeds reduce amino acid digestibility, increase endogenous N loss and the energetic cost of intestinal protein synthesis with consequent reduction in growth rate.

the most effective way of using the daily protein requirement is to ..

Protein & Amino Acids - Ask the Dietitian®

Dietary protein is not used efficiently as a source of energy. Although the gross energy of protein is greater than that of carbohydrate (23.6 kJ/g v 17.4 kJ/g for starch), when protein is used as an energy source the N has to be excreted as ammonia (fish), urea (mammals) or uric acid (birds). The ME value of protein at zero N retention takes into account the loss of energy in the excreta, such that the ME of protein and carbohydrate are approximately similar. The ME value for mammals and birds, however, does not take into account the energy costs of synthesising urea or uric acid and the cost of excretion in the kidney. Net energy (NE) of the diet represents the useful energy used to replace the losses of maintenance and the net deposition of energy as new tissue in growth or milk secretion during lactation, after subtracting the heat losses of metabolism.