The reduced neuropil hypothesis: ..

Small diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which include cells that transmit nociceptive information into the spinal cord, are known to express functional kainate receptors. It is well established that exposure to kainate will depolarize C-fiber afferents arising from these cells. Although the role of kainate receptors on sensory afferents is unknown, it has been hypothesized that presynaptic kainate receptors may regulate glutamate release in the spinal cord. Here we show that kainate, applied at low micromolar concentrations in the presence of the AMPA-selective antagonist (RS)-4-(4-aminophenyl)-1, 2-dihydro-1-methyl-2-propyl-carbamoyl-6,7-methylenedioxyphthalazine++ +, suppressed spontaneous NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs in cultures of spinal dorsal horn neurons. In addition, kainate suppressed EPSCs in dorsal horn neurons evoked by stimulation of synaptically coupled DRG cells in DRG-dorsal horn neuron cocultures. Interestingly, although the glutamate receptor subunit 5-selective kainate receptor agonist (RS)-2-alpha-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA) (2 micrometer) was able to suppress DRG-dorsal horn synaptic transmission to a similar extent as kainate (10 micrometer), it had no effect on excitatory transmission between dorsal horn neurons. Agonist applications revealed a striking difference between kainate receptors expressed by DRG and dorsal horn neurons. Whereas DRG cell kainate receptors were sensitive to both kainate and ATPA, most dorsal horn neurons responded only to kainate. Finally, in recordings from dorsal horn neurons in spinal slices, kainate and ATPA were able to suppress NMDA and AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs evoked by dorsal root fiber stimulation. Together, these data suggest that kainate receptor agonists, acting at a presynaptic locus, can reduce glutamate release from primary afferent sensory synapses.

The Pathophysiology of Ischemic Injury

by Mike Darwin, BioPreservation, Inc
Photo provided by
Flickr

Dynamic Reorganization of Neuronal Activity ..

N2 - While schizophrenia is generally considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, evidence for progressive clinical deterioration and subtle neurostructural changes following the onset of psychosis has led to the hypothesis that apoptosis may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Apoptosis (a.k.a. programmed cell death) is a mechanism of cell death that operates in normal neurodevelopment and is increasingly recognized for its role in diverse neuropathological conditions. Activation of apoptosis can lead to rapid and complete elimination of neurons and glia in the central nervous system. Studies also show that in certain settings, pro-apoptotic triggers can lead to non-lethal and localized apoptotic activity that produces neuritic and synaptic loss without causing cell death. Given that the neuropathology of schizophrenia is subtle and includes reduced neuropil (especially synaptic elements), limited and often layer-specific reductions of neurons, as well as neuroimaging data suggesting progressive loss of cortical gray matter in first-episode psychosis, a role for apoptosis in schizophrenia appears plausible. Studies that have examined markers of apoptosis and levels of apoptotic regulatory proteins in postmortem schizophrenia brain tissue will be reviewed in context of this hypothesis. Overall, the data seem to indicate a dysregulation of apoptosis in several cortical regions in schizophrenia, including evidence that the apoptotic vulnerability is increased. Although the exact role of apoptosis in schizophrenia remains uncertain, the potential involvement of non-lethal localized apoptosis is intriguing, especially in earlier stages of the illness.

Progressive supranuclear palsy: new concepts - SciELO

While schizophrenia is generally considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, evidence for progressive clinical deterioration and subtle neurostructural changes following the onset of psychosis has led to the hypothesis that apoptosis may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Apoptosis (a.k.a. programmed cell death) is a mechanism of cell death that operates in normal neurodevelopment and is increasingly recognized for its role in diverse neuropathological conditions. Activation of apoptosis can lead to rapid and complete elimination of neurons and glia in the central nervous system. Studies also show that in certain settings, pro-apoptotic triggers can lead to non-lethal and localized apoptotic activity that produces neuritic and synaptic loss without causing cell death. Given that the neuropathology of schizophrenia is subtle and includes reduced neuropil (especially synaptic elements), limited and often layer-specific reductions of neurons, as well as neuroimaging data suggesting progressive loss of cortical gray matter in first-episode psychosis, a role for apoptosis in schizophrenia appears plausible. Studies that have examined markers of apoptosis and levels of apoptotic regulatory proteins in postmortem schizophrenia brain tissue will be reviewed in context of this hypothesis. Overall, the data seem to indicate a dysregulation of apoptosis in several cortical regions in schizophrenia, including evidence that the apoptotic vulnerability is increased. Although the exact role of apoptosis in schizophrenia remains uncertain, the potential involvement of non-lethal localized apoptosis is intriguing, especially in earlier stages of the illness.

Reduced neuropil hypothesis.
Photo provided by
Flickr

The Use of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology …

Behavioral Neuro Final Flashcards | Quizlet

Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, ..