What is a Null Hypothesis? - Definition & Examples - …

An introduction to the humanities through a review of some of the major developments in human culture. The goal is to analyze how societies express their ideas through art, literature, music, religion, and philosophy and to consider some of the underlying assumptions about the way societies are formed and run. Focus is on developing the conceptual tools to understand cultural phenomena critically.

What is the role of hypothesis in research methodology

Human awareness, aspiration and attitudes determine society’s response to circumstances.

Example, sample sentence, & pronunciation of role (social role)

When Europeans invaded Australia in the late 1700s, the aborigines they encountered were in a state of almost constant warfare. What seems to be the case is that the founder group of Australia lived in the easy meat days and they grew and spread across the continent in a few thousand years. Once the golden age based on easy meat ended, they reverted back to their territorial natures and formed 600 separate societies, with between 500 and 1,000 people in each one. They all had unremitting hatred for their neighbors, with whom they were in constant warfare. The aboriginal genetic diversity supports the idea that those societies did not interbreed with each other, but stayed insular. They were all patrilocal and violent.


Except for New Guinean highlanders, initial European contact with all of those relict populations was universally disastrous, just as and elsewhere for centuries. Those initial contacts happened in anthropology’s early days, and studied the Andamans in the early 20th century, when they were tattered remnants of the people of a century earlier. The people were also devastated by European invasion. When the Dutch invaded what became South Africa, the Southern San were driven to extinction while the !Kung survived in the . Andamans, !Kung, and Aboriginal Australians all had/have strikingly similar religious ceremonies, which were marathon singing and dancing sessions that could last all night. Some rituals lasted for months. Their rituals are very likely what the first religions looked like, which were strenuous ordeals in which people reached frenzied states that left them exhausted. Today’s leading hypothesis is that those rituals created group cohesion that held their society together. The social glue of monkey and ape societies is grooming, but humans seem to have , and those early rituals further cemented the bonds.

Beattie�s paper discusses the role of social factors leading to depression, but he does not assess genetic predispositions for depression.

Social Development Theory - ICPD

Consider the following example. A social scientist may hypothesize that smaller class sizes in secondary schools will lead to higher performance on standardized tests. Because it is easy to observe the number of students in a class and the standardized tests scores are also easily observable (though there may be questions of the validity of the test as a measure of "intelligence" or even "academic achievement"), this hypothesis is easy to test. The test itself is also easy to replicate by the original social scientist or by other investigators. The hypothesis is sufficiently clear that any observer would be able to tell whether people in the smaller classes actually performed better on standardized tests. The judgment, then, is not a product of the specific observer but is instead independent of the identity of the scientist (a subject of some controversy that is discussed in a later section).

Somatic marker hypothesis - Wikipedia

One of the major strategies for hypothesis testing is quantitative research. The focus of this approach is on the quantification of social science concepts for purposes of comparison and hypothesis testing. For example, a social scientist might ask whether the U.S. president’s approval ratings have gone down over the past year. This could give some sense of the power the president might have in promoting his or her legislative agenda or the chances of the president’s party in an upcoming election.

A summary of Attraction in 's Social Psychology

The hypothesis would be the social scientist’s guess as to how the candidate will fare against the proposed opponent. A good hypothesis will be one that is well grounded in the available theory on elections and that is testable against observable data (in this case a survey). The hypothesis would predict whether the approval ratings of the president have gone down over the past year. It would provide a preliminary answer to the stated research question. More ambitious hypotheses that predict specific levels of support (that the president has lost 8 percent of support from the previous year) are possible, but these require highly developed theories. One can take as an example the basic hypothesis that the president’s approval rating has gone down in the past year.