A Brief History of the Synthesizer - Apple Inc.

It's essentially the same phenomenon that can be seen by playing around with your hands on a water surface.

These pressure waves can be of different intensity (experienced as volume, very loud sounds can even be felt in the rest of your body), and they fluctuate back and forth at the same speed as the object that caused them (heard as frequency or pitch).

Sound synthesis tutorial | University of Salford

Viewpoints on the History of Digital Synthesis JULIUS O SMITH will be available on

History of the Music Synthesizer -- Analog to Digital

The rate at which a sound wave moves in and out is called the . Frequency is measured in cycles per second. The length of a singal cycle of a waveform is the span of time it takes for that waveform to repeat. People generally hear an increase in the frequency of a sound wave as an increase in pitch. When the frequency of an oscillator is doubled, the pitch of the sound it generates moves an octave up. For example, an oscillator generating a signal that repeats at the rate of 440 cycles per second will have the same pitch as middle A on a piano. An oscillator generating a signal that repeats at 880 cycles per second will have the same pitch as the A an octave above middle A. A common way of saying "cycles per second" is "Hertz," abbreviated "Hz."

Suggestions for books on sound synthesis and …

Synthesis provides a means of constructing timbres to emulate existing instruments and create new sounds. There are two approaches to synthesising these timbres

Some popular software synthesizers take a sampled sound and process it with software-based filters, reverbs, ring modulators and the like.

Lloyd Watts tells the Audience's history.

Envelopes like the one pictured here are called , so named for their four stages: and . When we put an ADSR envelope module in a synthesizer, we specify exactly what is to happen during each stage of the envelope after an "on" gate signal is received. For example, the envelope pictured above has an attack stage that lasts 250 milliseconds, where the level increases to 1. After that, it has a decay stage lasting 200 milliseconds where the level decreases to 0.7. During the sustain stage, the level stays at 0.7 for as long as the envelope generator is receiving an "on" gate signal. Sustain stages do not have a specified duration. When the gate signal changes to "off," we enter the release stage, where the level takes 200 milliseconds to drop to 0.

Sound Synthesis Theory/Introduction - Wikibooks, …

In order to get the most mileage out of our synthesizer, we need a way of controlling each of its components internally. While many synthesizers have myriad knobs and buttons for controlling the sound, most people only have two hands, and it's difficult to accurately twist more than one or two knobs at a time. Fortunately, almost every module in a synthesizer can be controlled by another module. Our imaginary synthesizer does this already: the frequency of the oscillator and the volume level of the VCA are controlled by our keyboard.

Sound Synthesis and Physical Modeling

Let's add an envelope generator to our synthesizer below. This envelope will cause the volume of the sound from the oscillator to fade in gradually, sustain, and then drop off sharply. We'll use an ADSR envelope generator connected to the level input of our VCA:

Chapter 6: MIDI and Sound Synthesis - Digital Sound & Music

ADSR envelopes are often used to control the volume of a sound, although they can be used to control almost anything inside a modular synthesizer. For example, the same envelope could control a resonant low pass filter, making a cool sweeping and wooshing effect evolve as we play each note.

which a synthesizer’s sound is generated and the techniques ..

The signal is then passed through filters, which preferentially remove some overtones to obtain a sound which may be an imitation of an acoustical instrument, or may be a unique tonality not existing in acoustical form.