The Adrenal Glands Make the Cortisol

The term congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) encompasses a group of autosomal recessive disorders, each of which involves a deficiency of an enzyme involved in the synthesis of cortisol,[1] aldosterone, or both. Deficiency of 21-hydroxylase, resulting from mutations or deletions of CYP21A, is the most common form of CAH, accounting for more than 90% of cases. See the image below.

Related to cortical hormone: adrenal cortical hormones, ..

Thebasic underlying cause is low cortisol output by the adrenal glands.

Adrenocortical hormones - SlideShare

Growth failure is one of the more sensitive indicators of excess exposure to glucocorticoids. Short stature in adulthood is frequently the outcome in virilizing forms of adrenal hyperplasia because of the effect of uncontrolled adrenal androgens on skeletal maturation or the effects of excess glucocorticoid administration on growth.

Adrenocortical Hormones Chapter 77 Textbook of ..

Prenatal treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia appears to be somewhat successful in preventing the virilization due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency in a female fetus.[20] According to the protocol Carlson et al proposed, the mother is treated with 20 mcg/kg/d of dexamethasone divided into 3 doses as soon as the pregnancy is recognized to suppress fetal ACTH secretion and to prevent the fetal adrenal gland from overproducing adrenal androgens.[21]

inhibitors of the synthesis and actions of adrenocortical hormones.

When you do not drink enough or there is excessive loss of water through diarrhea or vomiting, aldosterone the hormone of adrenal cortex and , comes to your rescue. This hormone triggers the reabsorption of electrolytes, especially sodium ions, from the tubules into the blood. In order to maintain electrical neutrality, the sodium ions are followed by chloride ions. Meanwhile, water follows the sodium chloride.

Synthesis and metabolism of adrenocortical steroids …

Complications of congenital adrenal hyperplasia are common. Too little glucocorticoid results in adrenal insufficiency and further virilization in the virilizing forms. Complications of excessive administration of glucocorticoids include growth failure, obesity, striae, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and cataracts. The complications of excess mineralocorticoid administration include hypertension and hypokalemia.

synthetic pathways of adrenocortical hormones.

"The rapid growth of the human fetal adrenal gland, which is primarily a reflection of the growth of the unique fetal zone, is regulated by ACTH acting indirectly to stimulate the expression of locally produced growth factors, of which IGF-II and bFGF appear to play key roles. Through most of gestation, the outer definitive zone appears to function as a reservoir of progenitor cells which move centripetally to populate the rest of the gland. At the end of pregnancy, the fetal zone undergoes senescence through an apoptotic process. Activin and TGF-beta are capable of inducing apoptosis in the fetal zone. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, which is produced by the placenta in markedly increased amounts at the end of gestation, may orchestrate a variety of processes, including direct stimulation of fetal adrenal steroidogenesis, culminating in the initiation of parturition."


(hypercortisolism) A relatively rare metabolic hormonal disorder caused by prolonged exposure of the body’s tissues to high levels of the adrenal hormone cortisol, most commonly affects adults aged between 20 to 50 and also the obese with type 2 diabetes.

Histological section of the Adrenal Gland Cortical zones, ..

Short stature is a frequent complication of virilizing forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (see the image below). In general, patients have final heights 1-2 standard deviations below their estimated genetic potential.[18] This difference results from exposure to excessive concentrations of adrenal androgens that cause rapid skeletal maturation or from excessive exposure to glucocorticoids that limit growth. Early central puberty is often observed in children with advanced skeletal maturation and can contribute to the limitation in growth.