isoprenoid biosynthetic process via mevalonate (1)
isoprenoid biosynthetic process via 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
This review focuses on progress in our understanding of how the precursors for isoprenoid biosynthesis are synthesized in the two subcellular compartments, how the underlying pathway gene networks are organized and regulated, and how network perturbations impact each pathway and plant development.
Biosynthesis of Cholesterol, Steroids, and Isoprenoids
Because of the wealth of data on isoprenoid biosynthesis, we emphasize research in Arabidopsis thaliana and compare the synthesis of isoprenoid precursor molecules in this model plant with their synthesis in other prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.
Special Issues - Molecules - MDPI
Isoprenoid compounds (also referred to as terpenoids) are synthesized from isoprene subunits via the mevonolate and methylerythritol phosphate pathways in the chloroplasts and cytosol of plants. Isoprenoid precursors are used to synthesize four major plant hormones.
Molecules, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal.
The immediate products of the IPT reaction are iP-ribotides. The isoprene side chain of iP-ribotides is subsequently trans-hydroxylated by the P450 monooxygenases CYP735A1 and CYP735A2 to yield zeatin ribotides (Takei et al. 2004). Cytokinin nucleotides can be converted to their most active free base forms via dephosphorylation and deribosylation. Such interconversions may involve enzymes common to purine metabolism. In addition to these enzymes, the monophosphate forms of cytokinin ribotides can be directly converted to the free base forms by the phosphoribohydrolase LONELY GUY (LOG) (see Figure A3.5), which was identified in a rice mutant that displayed shoot meristem defects (Kurakawa et al. 2007). LOG expression is localized to the tip of shoot meristems and the enzyme likely fine-tunes the spatial distribution of bioactive cytokinins to regulate meristem activity. Zeatin can be oxidized; it can also be conjugated to form O-glucosides or N-glucosides. These reactions are shown in Figures A3.6 and A3.7.