Synthesis of Lead(II) Nitrate | Hobby Chemistry
Synthesis description for preparation of LEAD(II) NITRATE
Our results showed that the liver of exposed to lead nitrate, displayed an increase in the amount of hepatocellular lipid deposits. Fatty infiltration in the liver has been experimentally induced in cat, fish and Atlantic cod which was fed Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) (; ). A similar increase in lipid droplets was also found in liver cells of after copper poisoning () and in after lead exposure (). The increase in cytoplasmic lipids may be related to the hypoxic condition induced by lead as observed in other tissues (). In conclusion, the present study suggested that lead nitrate exerts some toxic effects of the liver of with regards to the histological changes. Under lead sublethal dose of 45 mg L-1, blood congestion in sinusoids, vaculation of hepatocytes and necroses in the liver of were observed (). These authors and reported that dietary Ca2+ will be protective in reducing Pb burdens in fish exposed to environments contaminated with waterborne Pb. In a similar way, Hussein and Mekkawy referred to the clay as protective agent in reducing Pb-toxicity. , evaluate the dietary tomato paste and vitamin E as a protective agent against toxicity of cadmium.
Of Science and Hobby Chemistry: Synthesis of Lead (II) Nitrate
A drastic decrease in glycogen amount in exposed to lead nitrate was observed in the present investigation. In addition, other studies showed a reduction in hepatic glycogen following exposure to xenobiotic compounds (, , ) which can be explained by increased glycolytic activity to meet the energy demands imposed by enhanced metabolic activity (; ). Such activity was confirmed biochemically by . Moreover, lead acetate intoxication stimulated the adrenals in rats () via inducing the release of adrenal catecholamines causing glycogenolysis which was also observed in the fish (). Thus it can be concluded that lead would disturb the carbohydrate metabolism. Other physiological processes such as sexual maturation (), or nonchemical stresses, such as temperature () and hypoxia (; ) are associated with glycogen depletion; hence, hepatocyte glycogen is non-specific parameter indicating stress of the organism (). On the other hand, long-term exposure to contaminants lead to accumulation of glycogen in the fish liver ().
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Stock solution (1000 ppm) of lead as lead nitrate Analar (BDH) (Pb [NO3]2) was prepared and stored in clean glass bottles and diluted to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ppm. Such low sublethal lead concentrations were chosen according to levels monitored by and . Lead doses were prepared and added constantly to the aquarium for four weeks. The experimental period (4 weeks lead exposure) was chosen according to , and . The test water was replaced daily with the required amount of stock solution to prevent deterioration of water quality and replenish lead levels.
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To prevent inhalation, ingestion and exposure to skin, lead(II)nitrate must be handled in a fume cupboard, with face, body andhand protection. Special instructions for handling are included inall (MSDS). After use, all material and its containers must be disposedof as . Spillage and release to the environment must beavoided.