Relevance for insulin release and Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Thesis
For women with PCOS, pregnancy should be considered a state of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus and as a precaution, diet guidelines should reflect those for gestational diabetes mellitus. A slight reduction in carbohydrate intake of 35% to 40% of total calories is therefore suggested and consistent with the American Diabetes Association guidelines for gestational diabetes mellitus. The majority of carbohydrates should be of whole grain and high-fiber quality, with at least 28 grams each day (the dietary reference intake requirement) for optimal glucose and insulin control. Dietetics professionals must convey the importance of distributing carbohydrates evenly throughout the day and encouraging three meals and two to four snacks, as well as an evening snack to manage glucose levels throughout the night. All meals and snacks must include protein-rich foods to help stabilize glucose levels. Due to the high rate of miscarriage and gestational diabetes mellitus related to elevated insulin levels, women with PCOS should limit or avoid simple carbohydrates, including sweetened beverages (eg, juices, soft drinks, sports drinks), candies, and desserts.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Thesis : Gestational diabetes
Metformin is recommended for pregnant women with PCOS, as it can reduce the incidence of preeclampsia, macrosomia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm labor, and the risk of miscarriage.8,9 A study showed that at dosages between 1.5 and 2.55 grams per day, metformin did not affect the birth weight, length, growth, or motor-social development of 126 infants compared with their control counterparts.15 Metformin helps prevent gestational diabetes mellitus and improve pregnancy outcomes in women with PCOS by helping reduce preconception and pregnancy weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance and secretion.2,3
⭐️| diabetes | ☀☀☀ diabetes mellitus type 2 thesis ☀☀☀
The most life-threatening consequences of diabetes are heart disease and stroke, which strike people with diabetes more than twice as often as they do others.
Prospective Study of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Risk …
7. Solomon CG, Willett WC, Carey VJ, et al. A prospective study of pregravid determinants of gestational diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 1997;278(13):1078-1083.